U. S. Scouting Service Project at http://usscouts.org

MERIT BADGES ADDED SINCE LAST REQUIREMENTS BOOK

Effective: January 1, 1998

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Archaeology
Climbing
Crime Prevention (1996)
Entrepreneurship

CHANGED MERIT BADGES

COMPLETELY REPLACED
MERIT BADGES


Archaeology:        (Merit Badge Number 132)

New merit badge, the requirements for which are as follows: 

  •  1. Tell what archaeology is and explain how it differs from anthropology, geology, paleontology, and history. 

    2. Describe each of the following steps of the archaeological process: site location, site excavation, artifact identification and examination, interpretation, preservation, and information sharing. 

    3. Describe at least two ways in which archaeologists determine the age of sites, structures, or artifacts. Explain what relative dating is. 

    4. Do TWO of the following: 

  • (a) Gather research on three archaeological sites located outside the United States. Point out each site on a world map. Explain how each site was discovered. Describe some of the information from the past that has been found at each site. Explain how the information gained from the study of these sites answers questions that archaeologists are asking and how the information may be important for modern people. Compare the relative ages of the sites. 

    (b) Gather research on three archaeological sites that are within the United States. Point out each site on a map. Explain how each site was discovered. Describe some of the information from the past that has been found at each site. Explain how the information gained from the study of these sites answers questions that archaeologists are asking and how the information may be important for modern people. Compare the relative ages of the sites. 

    (c) Visit an archaeological site and gather research on it. Explain how the site was discovered. Describe some of the information from the past that has been found at the site. Explain how the information gained from the study of this site answers questions that archaeologists are asking and how the information may be important for modern people. Compare the age of this site with the ages of the other sites you have researched. 
     

  • 5. Choose ONE of the research projects you completed for requirement 4. Present your findings to your Scout troop, school class, or other group. 

    6. Do the following: 

  • (a) Explain why it is important to protect archaeological sites. 

    (b) Explain what people should do if they think they have found an artifact. 

    (c) Describe ways in which you can be a protector of the past.   

  • 7. Do ONE of the following: 

  • (a) Make a list of items you would include in a time capsule. Discuss with your merit badge counselor what archaeologists a thousand years from now might learn from the contents of your capsule about you and the culture in which you live. 

    (b) Make a list of the trash your family throws out during one week. Discuss with your counselor what archaeologists finding that trash a thousand years from now might learn from it about you and your family.   

  • 8. Do ONE of the following: 

  • (a) Under the supervision of a qualified archaeologist, spend at least eight hours helping to excavate an archaeological site. 

    (b) Under the supervision of a qualified archaeologist, spend at least eight hours in an archaeological laboratory helping to prepare artifacts for analysis, storage, or display. 

    (c) If you are unable to work in the field or in a laboratory under the supervision of a qualified archaeologist, you may substitute a mock dig. To find out how to make a mock dig, talk with a professional archaeologist, trained avocational archaeologist, museum school instructor, junior high or high school science teacher, adviser from a local archaeology society, or other qualified instructor. Plan what you will bury in your artificial site to show use of your "site" during two time periods.   

  • 9. Under the supervision of a qualified archaeologist or instructor, do ONE of the following: 

  • (a) Help prepare an archaeological exhibit for display in a museum, visitor center, school, or other public area. 

    (b) Use the methods of experimental archaeology to re-create an item or to practice a skill from the past. Write a brief report explaining the experiment and its results.   

  • 10. Identify three career opportunities in archaeology and tell what education and experience are required for each. 

    11. Do ONE of the following: 

  • (a) Research American Indians who live or once lived in your area. Find out about traditional lifeways, dwellings, clothing styles, arts and crafts, and methods of food gathering, preparation, and storage. Describe what you would expect to find at an archaeological site for these people. 

    (b) Research settlers or soldiers who were in your area at least one hundred years ago. Find out about the houses or forts, ways of life, clothing styles, arts and crafts, and dietary habits of the early settlers, farmers, ranchers, soldiers, or townspeople who once lived in the area where your community now stands. Describe what you would expect to find at an archaeological site for these people.


  • Climbing:       (Merit Badge Number 133)

    New merit badge, the requirements for which are as follows: 

  • 1. Show that you know first aid for injuries or illnesses that may occur during climbing activities, including hypothermia, blisters, sprains, abrasions, and fractures. 

    2. Present yourself properly dressed for belaying, climbing, and rappelling (i.e. appropriate clothing, footwear, and a helmet; rappellers must also wear gloves). 

    3. Location. Do the following: 

  • (a) Explain the mountaineers (free climbers) climbing classifications and apply the classifications to the rock faces or walls where you will demonstrate your climbing and rappelling skills. 

    (b) Evaluate the safety of a particular climbing area. Consider weather, visibility, the condition of the climbing surface, and any environmental hazards. 

    (c) Determine how to summon aid to the climbing are in case of an emergency.   

  • 4. Verbal signals. Explain the importance of using verbal signals during every climb and rappel. With the help of the merit badge counselor or another Scout, demonstrate the verbal signals used by each of the following: 

  • (a) Climbers 

    (b) Rappellers 

    (c) Belayers   

  • 5. Rope. Do the following: 

  • (a) Describe the kind of rope acceptable for use in climbing and rappelling. 

    (b) Show how to examine a rope for signs of wear or damage. 

    (c) Discuss ways to prevent a rope from being damaged. 

    (d) Explain when and how a rope should be retired. 

    (e) Properly coil a rope.   

  • 6. Knots. Demonstrate the ability to tie each of the following knots. Give at least one example of how each knot is used in belaying, climbing, or rappelling. 

  • (a) Figure eight on a bight 

    (b) Figure eight follow-through 

    (c) Water knot 

    (d) Grapevine knot 

    (e) Bowline on a coil   

  • 7. Harnesses. Correctly put on at least ONE of the following: 

  • (a) Commercially made climbing harness 

    (b) Knotted leg-loop seat sling 

    (c) Diaper sling   

  • 8. Belaying. Do the following: 

  • (a) Explain the importance of belaying every climber and rappeller. 

    (b) Belay three different climbers ascending a rock face or climbing wall. 

    (c) Belay three different rappellers descending a rock face or climbing wall. 
     

  • 9. Climbing. Do the following: 

  • (a) Show the correct way to tie into a belay rope. 

    (b) Climb at least three different routes on a rock face or climbing wall, demonstrating good technique and using verbal signals with a belayer.   

  • 10. Rappelling. Do the following: 

  • (a) Using carabiners and a rappel device, secure your climbing harness or seat sling to a rappel rope. 

    (b) Tie in to a belay rope set up to protect rappellers. 

    (c) Rappel down three different rock faces or three rappel routes on a climbing wall. Use verbal signals to communicate with a belayer, and demonstrate good rappelling technique.   

  • 11. Demonstrate ways to store rope, hardware, and other gear used for climbing, rappelling, and belaying.


  • Entrepreneurship:       (Merit Badge Number 134)

    New merit badge, the requirements for which are as follows: 

  • 1. In your own words, define entrepreneurship. Explain to your merit badge counselor the role of the entrepreneur in the economy of the United States. 

    2. Identify and interview an individual who has started his or her own business. Find out how the entrepreneur got the idea for the business and how the entrepreneur recognized it as a market opportunity. Find out how the entrepreneur raised the capital (money) to start the business. How well is the business doing? Report what you learn. 

    3. Do the following: 

  • (a) Write down as many ideas as you can think of for a business. Get ideas from your family and friends. From your list, select three ideas that you believe are the best opportunities for you. 

    (b) Explain to your counselor why you chose these three ideas rather than the others on your list. 

    (c) For each of the three ideas that you chose, prepare a list of questions that you would ask potential customers. 

    (d) For each of your three ideas, informally interview potential customers, using the lists of questions from requirement 3(c). Report what you learn. 

    (e) Using the information you have gathered, choose the one idea that you feel is your best business opportunity.   

  • 4. Conduct a feasibility study of your business idea by doing all of the following (briefly writing or explaining each item to your counselor): 

  • (a) Good or Service 
  • (1) Identify your business goals. 

    (2) Tell how you will make the good or perform the service. Determine whether it is technically feasible (practical or doable). 

    (3) Determine how you can make enough of the good or provide enough of the service to meet your business goals. Explain how you will accomplish this. 

    (4) Identify and describe the potential liability risks of your good or service. 

    (5) Determine what type of license you might need in order to sell or make your good or service.   

  • (b) Market 

  • (1) Determine who your customers are. Identify the type of person who would buy your good or service. 

    (2) Describe the unique benefits of your good or service. 

    (3) Tell how you will promote and sell your good or service to potential customers.   

  • (c) Finances 

  • (1) f you are selling a good, determine how much it will cost to make one prototype. 

    (2) Calculate the selling price of your good or service. Explain how you determined the price. 

    (3) Tell how you will sell your good or service and make a profit. 

    (4) Determine how much money you will need to start your business. Explain how you will get the money. 

  • (d) Personnel 

  • (1) Determine what parts of the business you will handle yourself. Describe your qualifications for the work. Determine how your business responsibilities will fit into your schedule. 

    (2) Determine whether you will need additional help to operate your business. If you will need help, describe the qualifications your helpers should have and what duties they will perform.

  • 5. Do TWO of the following. 

  • (a) Sketch a prototype of your good or write a description of your service. 

    (b) Create the prototype. List all of the materials you used to make your prototype. Calculate the cost of all the materials and labor to compute the total cost of making your prototype. 

    (c) Design a promotional poster or flier for your good or service. 

    (d) Project (estimate) your sales through the first three months of operation. Calculate the profit you expect to make. 

  • 6. When you believe that your business idea is feasible, start your business. Show evidence that you started your business (sales receipts, for example, or photos of the good). Report to your counselor the results of your venture.


  • This analysis was originally prepared as a service to Scouts and Scouters nationwide by:
    Bruce E. Cobern
    Advancement Chairman
    Founders District
    Queens Council
    Greater New York Councils
    Boy Scouts of America

    The information was edited, rearranged, and converted to HTML by:
    Paul S. Wolf
    Advancement Committee
    Winding Rivers District
    Greater Cleveland Council
    Boy Scouts of America

    Copies may be freely distributed, so long as the author and editor are acknowledged.


    Page updated on: May 02, 2013

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